Games of chance: Payout ratio and Variance (volatility) of games of chance

Chance games and payout ratios (RTP)

The payout ratio in a game of chance is the long-term statistical rate. It is the total money won divided by the total money risked. It is also referred to as expected return, payout percentage, RTP, or return to player. The house edge is the payout ratio’s reverse. The payout ratio of less than 100% is the house edge. The house edge is 100% – 95% = 5% if the payout ratio is 95%.

Let’s examine the payout percentages of the well-liked chance games in more detail.

Roulette payout ratio

When betting on the color black in European Roulette. The probability of winning is calculated by dividing the number of black numbers (18). By the total number of numbers (37), which includes zero. Double the bet is the payout.

For roulette, this means that the payoff ratio is 2 * 18 / 37 = 0.973 = 97.3%. The house edge is thus 2.7% (100 – 97.3%). Every type of bet in the roulette game has the same RTP (color, number, etc.).

RTP for blackjack

RTP could change from one casino to the next given the variations in blackjack rules. Yet, a gambler using the blackjack strategy can expect an RTP of around 99.5% when playing blackjack.

The predicted RTP in blackjack, both live and online, varies based on how the dealer deals cards out of the deck. The cards that remain in the “shoe” determine the RTP, which ranges from 95% to 102%. Card counters, or players who calculate the real RTP of the blackjack deck and attempt to bet. If the RTP is higher than 100%, take advantage of this to their advantage in the long run. But, casinos also have ways to identify these card counters and stop them from playing.

Slot machine payout percentage

Slot machine returns range from 92% to 99%. Slot machine payout percentages are decided by the payoff table. The symbols on the virtual reels, and extra unique rules that are exclusive to each game.

Games of chance’s variance (volatility)

The rate at which your bankroll changes while playing a game is set by its variance sometimes referred to as volatility.

  • When you play a low-volatility game, you win little prizes. In this case, your bankroll swings very evenly. But regrettably, in a negative direction.
  • In a high-variance game, you lose the great majority of the rounds, but when you do win, it’s a high-variance win. There are significant gains that take the place of gradual declines.

Win distribution statistics can also be used to explain game variance. We are discussing the distribution of prizes represented as a many of the bet. As they are often equal to the size of the bet made. In roulette, all profits are paid out as double the original bet when betting on a color. All rewards when betting on a single number are distributed as 36 times the original bet.

Slot variance is a little more complex. It is possible to strike many winning combinations and receive many multiples of your bet. Because of this, it’s difficult to sum up slot variance in a single number. Game developers only use terms like “small,” “medium,” and “high” to define their machines.

Your chances of winning when you leave a casino are affected by a game’s variance. The higher the variance is the better is the chances.

The first is that it’s simpler to win the amount you want in a single game round in a high-variance game.

  • The second reason is that more rounds result in a loss. Which makes you reduce your bets from prior wins (which lowers your betting system’s RTP). As a result, you lose faster.
  • The third reason is that you may bet less to have an equal probability of winning. If you can win a larger many of the bet. Once more, this lowers the amount of your bets, which lowers your long-term losses.

For example, let us consider a game with 99% RTP and no volatility. A $1 bet in this game would yield $0.99. It would be impossible to win this game because the results of each round would be predetermined. This game would appeal to no one, but it does show that a high RTP is not the only factor to consider.


The amount of possible winnings expressed as multiples of the bet determines the game’s variance. When a set RTP is taken into account, the game’s volatility increases as individual wins do. If you’re having fun, choose games with a lot of variation and make lesser bets. You might reach your target victory with a few victories; if not, you’ll lose your entire money. Remember that you are making a trade-off between your betting system’s RTP and the length of your play

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